For further information please e-mail: The EARL-21G assessment tool has a very similar format to that of the EARL-20B, used for boys (see the previous fact sheet on the EARL-20B). This stigmatization leads to increased isolation, social distress and difficulty finding employment.Footnote 39, With regard to the age variable, it is essential to ensure that the tool's age group corresponds to the age group targeted by the program. In addition, directly linked to this advantage, the use of an identification tool to recruit the appropriate clientele ensures that decisions are supported with concrete and substantiated results. 2005. They concluded that “of the three instruments investigated, the SAVRY offered the most incremental predictive validity for general risk and for violent recidivism, whereas the PCL:YV followed closely behind” (Welsh et al. In this context, it is possible for a child to have a low total score but still show a very significant critical risk factor that should be targeted for intervention. ACE Research and Evaluation, University of Minnesota. ... and predictive validity with juvenile offenders. Youth Risk/Need Assessment: An Overview of Issues and Practices. Juvenile justice service staff began exploring the use of actuarial risk assessments that classify offenders by the likelihood of future delinquency with earnest in the 1970s, but actuarial risk assessments have been used by public social service agencies in the United States since 1928. The tools developed on the basis of these cut-off points require the evaluator to be vigilant. The time required to administer the EARL-20B depends at first on the amount of information to be collected prior to the assessment (parent and child interviews, case conferences, psychologist/social worker reports, school assessments, police reports, etc.). The total score obtained on the forms is a reliable and accurate predictor of behavioural, emotional or academic problems for the child or adolescent (Pearson, Assessments for Educational, Clinical and Psychological Use). The information gathered from ASSET can be used to highlight all of the young person's particular needs or difficulties, so they can be adequately addressed through a tailored intervention. Once a total score is calculated for each area, the POSIT administrator can use empirically derived cut-off scores to classify the youth's risk level as low, medium or high for each of the 10 areas. “Gender Differences in Psychiatric Disorders at Juvenile Probation Intake.” American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 131-137. They contribute to the defensibility of any decisions made about how to deal with any offender, and ensure that the most reliable assessment of the likelihood and severity of impact is made. This tool helps collect reliable data for both clinical and research purposes. “Screening for Drug Abuse Among Adolescents in Clinical and Correctional Settings Using the Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers.” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 23(1), 79-98. a tool for identifying students with risk behaviours; part of a collection of multi-method and multi-source assessment instruments; a way of determining students' eligibility for intervention programs; a tool to help design treatment programs suitable to the needs of young people; and. Hoge, R. D. and D. A. Andrews. Each ASEBA form is tailored to a specific type of informant, as follows: Each form takes about 15 minutes to complete. “Predictive Validity of the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) with Juvenile Offender.” Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 35(3), 344–355. The tool uses a 3-point rating scale to rate each items (0-not present, 1 possibly present, 2-present). It assists in the development of tailored case plans and helps ensure the availability of services and resources. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems. McLaney, M. A. and F. D. Boca. Early Assessment Risk List for Girls – Version 1, Consultation Edition.Toronto, Ontario: Earlscourt Child and Family Centre. (Eds. This report reviews current risk-screening technology in the United States through the detention reform lens of JDAI sites. They emphasize the main risk factors known to be associated with delinquency (past and current), their frequency, their variety and their intensity.Footnote 18 The results obtained from this type of assessment are considered reliable and accurate.Footnote 19. Longitudinal and experimental studies conducted in various countries have contributed to a better understanding of offending trajectories and the associated risk factors. These tools help establish targeted selective prevention mechanisms by intervening with a specific youth clientele. 2008. Background: Structured risk/need assessment tools are increasingly used to orientate risk reduction strategies with juvenile offenders. Results indicated that the ASSET scoring system predicted re-conviction with 67% accuracy. Web site:, Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute Website: As previously indicated, the SSIS is the new version of the SSRS. Tools for identifying and assessing the risk of offending among youth discussed in this research report and other related materials are copyrighted. Additional information can also be obtained through other information sources (for example child protection services, police, youth justice services, etc.). This interaction between volatile temperament and the level of risk of the neighbourhood context is the key to identifying the children who need comprehensive long-term services to prevent escalation into violence. Mental Health Screening and Assessment in Juvenile Justice. 3 0 obj For example both the Teacher and Parent rating scales take 10 to 20 minutes to complete, while the Self-Report requires about 30 minutes. Identifying young people at risk through a referral and screening system. This tool was validated in Quebec with young people aged 14 to 17. Toronto, Ontario Assessment, Planning, Interventions and Supervision: Key Elements of Effective Practice. 2003. Assessment results are presented as percentiles and T-scores. R8-R9 should be evaluated as of the time of the assessment. 2000. Correlations between the SSBS and other assessment instruments (e.g. Similarly, Gretton and Abramowitz (2002) found that low-risk young offenders had a 5.7% violent recidivism rate, those at moderate-risk had a rate of 13.1% and those at high-risk a rate of 40.4%. Rutter, M., H. Giller and A. Hagell. Using the same tool with different cultures raises the issues of limitations and the lack of data on specificities in the nature and intensity of certain risk factors linked to specific cultural groups, and whether or not these tools require adaptation. Targeted identification of the right youth, an in-depth assessment and tailored intervention plans will help establish an integrated delinquency prevention initiative (i.e. BASC-2: Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. It is intended as: This tool is intended for youth aged 5 to 18. Special attention must be paid to 20% of adolescents, highlighting the importance of clinical expertise in the youth addiction field in order to screen adolescents whose DEP-ADO scores do not reflect their actual problems. Given the limited number of evaluation studies for this tool, it would be useful to conduct more research on its validity and reliability. A provincial support committee ensures quality of use; institutions using the questionnaire may appoint a committee representative. Taps self-perceptions of competence, potency and positive self-worth. Rosslyn, Virginia: Hamilton Fish National Institute on School and Community Violence. 2005). FRIENDS National Resource Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention. Results showed that there was a positive relation between youth risk level and the percentage of youth that reoffended within an 18-month period (Orbis Partners 2007). Eligibility to purchase certain materials is determined based on training and experience. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series. Wasserman, G. A., et al. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This screening version is designed to identify youth at risk and conduct a preliminary assessment to identify the level and nature of interventions required. Smith, R. and L. Handler. 2009). Stigmatization, or the process of labelling certain individuals, is a significant weakness associated with use of these tools, and should not be overlooked. A Referral and Assessment Framework for Children and Young People at Risk of Committing Crime or Anti-social Behaviour. In a delinquency-related field, according to an opinion poll conducted in England by the Royal College of Psychiatrists,Footnote 37 people who suffer from dependencies, in particular alcoholism and substance abuse,Footnote 38 are perceived and labelled by the general public as dangerous and unpredictable. Andrews, D. A. et al. 2008. Beck Youth InventoriesTM - Second Edition. Also, all data entered into this information management system will help evaluate the program's impact and monitor the progress of a young person participating in the program. They do not have to be discussed in any particular order: Two additional forms are used in specific situations as follows: All ASSET forms are available on the Youth Justice Board Web site at: Review of youth records from several institutions (police, courts, health, child protection services, school, etc.). For clinical items, a result between 20 and 59 corresponds to low-risk, and 60 and over to high-risk. Toronto, Ontario: Earlscourt Child and Family Centre. Adult Re-Offense Risk … Does the program require that youth at risk be identified so that they can be recruited to participate in the program? Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR), Inc. 16204 N. Florida Ave DEP-ADO can be administered by a clinician in a one-to-one interview. Julie Savignac the young person offends to obtain money for substances), Physical health (e.g. In programs that extend over several months, follow-up is a central dimension for analyzing the young person's progress in the program, ensuring that the objectives are achieved, and adjusting interventions when necessary and appropriate. This tool is intended for youth aged 12 to 19. Bonta, J. and D. A. Andrews. (Eds. Lutz, FL 33549 Some Practical and Theoretical Lessons.” Crime & Delinquency, 53(4), 552-580. 2003). They abandon that trajectory around late adolescence. This report is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an overview of the tools that may be used in the field of delinquency prevention among youth.Summary Footnote 1. Therefore, risk assessments by juvenile justice personnel do not take the place of psychological evaluations, which still will be essential for some youth. The interaction between the child's temperament and the context of the neighbourhood is an important scale in this tool. Dolan, Mairead, Troy E. McEwan, Rebekah Doley, and Katarina Fritzon. 1995. DEP-ADO is a screening checklist used to detect problem alcohol and drug use in adolescents. A retrospective seven-year study showed that children with above-median EARL-20B scores were significantly more likely to be found guilty of an offence than their lower-scoring counterparts (Koegl et al. In Washington State, YASI was used to assess 10,046 young offenders on probation. One of the challenges in preventing and reducing risks of offending is to identify young people who are at risk, that is, who are facing multiple risk factors associated with delinquency, and to measure the effect of these factors on their behaviours in order to apply an intervention of the appropriate type and intensity. Specifically, identify the most proximal risk factors, i.e. The overall interpretation of the assessment is based not only on the total point score but also on the presence of critical risk factors (the red flags). The instrument has high internal consistency and good reliability for all age groups on all scales (FRIENDS). These assessment tools are designed for use with young children at risk for future antisocial behaviour. Children who score 3.0 or more are considered high-risk and enrolled in the ACE program. “Reliability of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) in Adolescent Medical Practice.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(2), 125-130. ONSET is an assessment tool that measures possible links between young people's behaviour and risk factors grouped according to the following 12 areas: There is also a protective factors section for each of these areas. Scores are then summed to indicate the level of risk (low, moderate or high). With that said, the need for such a system increases as a growing number of young people participate in the program. Pearson, Assessments for Educational, Clinical and Psychological Use. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada. If so, a risk assessment tool must be used. Computer Technical Support: 888-251-4147. A Canadian Programme for Child Delinquents. Ottawa, Ontario Youth Justice Board. Items measuring the young person's adjustment focus on positive psychological behaviours, while clinical scale items place more emphasis on externalized and internalized problem behaviours and on problems at school. All factors yield a total maximum score of 40 points. SAVRY can be compared to the Historical Clinical Risk-20 (HCR-20), an assessment tool for use with adults (Webster et al. These scales assess the presence and frequency of certain problem behaviours in order to measure the level of risk for the youth. ), Tomorrow's Criminals: The Development of Child Delinquency and Effective Interventions. It would appear that combining the results of actuarial risk assessments and clinical judgments may help assess an offender's risk of re-offending.Footnote 17, Of all the risk assessment tools used with youth at high risk of offending and reoffending behaviour, the most appropriate ones identified in the literature are those that are based on the dynamic risk factors associated with delinquency. The RFPI has to be used within at least the first two weeks following the child's referral. This instrument comprises five Beck inventories: BASC-2 is a family of tools used to assess a range of emotional and behaviour problems in young people and to help practitioners and professionals develop appropriate intervention plans. SAVRY is composed of 30 items, of which 24 are associated with risk factors and 6 with protective factors. This study used a sample of 342 adolescents recruited from school, clinical, and correctional settings, and found that POSIT can be used as a useful screening instrument to identify adolescents in need of further drug abuse assessment (Latimer, Winters and Stinchfield 1997). SASSI-A2 can be administered individually or in a group setting. Scottish Government (the). This tool contains direct and indirect subscales that operate dynamically together to screen young people with substance use disorders regardless of their honesty or motivation (Feldstein and Miller 2007). 2001. This tool is intended for adolescents aged 12 to 18 who: SAVRY should be used by professionals with assessment and/or supervision experience regarding violence risk in youth. The time required to complete the full assessment ranges from 30 to 60 minutes. Bailey, S. and S. Scott. The SSBS tool was designed to achieve several objectives; for example it is used in schools to identify students with at-risk behaviours. St. Joseph's Wing (3rd Floor, Room 3207) Training is strongly encouraged prior to use of the EARL-20B. There may be some fact sensitive issues which affect the Telephone: 1-800-268-6001 For example, if the program focuses on reducing violence or aggression among children, the selected tool must have criteria that identify or assess this issue and its associated risk factors. This training is offered by the Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at the Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Ontario. Toronto, Ontario In general, the reference period is “in the last 12 months”. from Section 2 - Assessment and Needs of Young Offenders By Prathiba Chitsabesan , Lorraine Khan Edited by Susan Bailey , Paul Tarbuck , University of Central Lancashire, Preston , Prathiba Chitsabesan Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Inc. Hoge R. D. 2005. Costs are approximately $50 for the user's guide and $40 for the forms. Developing problem (early intervention considered desirable); Score of 20 points or more = Red Light. 1 0 obj The RFPI's main objective is to identify children who have committed a criminal offence and are at high-risk for escalating into more serious offending and continuing on a path to chronic violent delinquency. If so, a risk assessment tool must be used. “A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity.” Assessment, 15(1), 104-115. The study compared the SAVRY, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), for assessing risk of general and violent recidivism. New York: The Guilford Press, Chapter 18., 295-310. The BASC-2 system uses a multidimensional assessment approach and applies a triangulation method to gather information and validate the results obtained. Risk List for Girls The EARL-20B helps to individually target each of the primary risk factors that could lead the child to engage in aggressive, violent or antisocial behaviour.Appendix Footnote 5. Further Development of ASSET. ASEBA/Research Center for Children, Youth and Families, 1 South Prospect Street 2003. This tool is intended for young offenders aged 12 to 17 who come into contact with the criminal justice system. The Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) is a family of tools designed to evaluate young people's social skills, problem behaviours and academic competences. 46 St. Clair Gardens The SSBS contains 65 items distributed into two scales: Scale A consists of positive behaviours and prosocial skills, and Scale B comprises negative and problematic behaviours. The current version is DEP-ADO, Version 3.2, September 2007. The items presented focus on the following 10 areas of psychosocial functioning: The final score in each of these 10 areas can be calculated by hand or through available software. factors. The full assessment builds on pre-screen results to provide a more in-depth and comprehensive risk assessment in the domains where risk was deemed to be high. Psychological Intervention in Corrections. Walker, J. et al. Web site: A system of risk assessment has been implemented by county juvenile courts to identify levels of risk and eligibility of youths. Web site:, Department of Psychology This instrument can be used as a screening tool for at-risk youth to identify young people who are likely to have academic and behavioural difficulties and also as an assessment tool to evaluate key social and behavioural skills in young people's academic achievement. Sprague, J. and H. Walker. We therefore present a few results that apply to the SSRS, as follows: Findings from the teacher rating form are convergent with those obtained with other instruments (Merrell and Gimpel 1998). ASEBA is a reliable instrument for use in youth justice settings (Achenbach 2005): Findings obtained with ASEBA help predict over the long term certain rule breaking behaviours, particularly those involving contact with the police and alcohol or drug use, from childhood to adolescence, or from adolescence to adulthood. The first is that of early onset, where children adopt behaviours for which they would be criminally liable if they were of legal age. National Institutes of Health Several of the tools presented in this report are available only to qualified professionals in accordance with the principles stated in the Professional Affairs Committee Working Group on Test Publishing Industry Safeguards sanctioned by the Canadian Psychological Association and in the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. The total score obtained is then used to determine the overall level of risk based on predetemined cut-off points. This study examined the implementation of risk/needs assessment tools in six juvenile probation offices in two states, and what effects it had on the practices of the probation officers” (p. 1). Social Skills: i.e. M6E 3V4 In Canada, for example, there are two validated tools for identifying youth at risk based on the conceptual model of the significant relationships between the risk factors associated with offending and the youth's behaviours: the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory - Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) and the Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument - Pre-Screen Version (YASI). Fax: 514-385-4685 These tools were not designed to specify the … Targeted intervention settings are primarily organizations offering early substance addiction intervention; these include health care centres, community organizations, schools and youth centres. Each form (teachers, parents and student self-report) has 25 to 30 items. ASSET provides a structure for recording and analyzing information. Does the program require that tailored intervention plans be developed for each participant? Slot, P. Van Der Laan and M. Hoeve (Eds. Customer Service: 888-467-2774 The EARL-21G, as the name indicates, is a list containing 21 items (risk factors) organized under three broad sections: Family, Child and Responsivity. Tools for identifying and assessing the risk of offending among youth discussed in this research report and other related materials are copyrighted. Under no circumstances and for no reason may the information collected be used for discriminatory purposes. The total score is then standardized into a T-score. A risk assessment tool can generate probability errors. This tool was developed by Randy W. Kamphaus and Cecil R. Reynolds (2007). Is this a clientele diagnosed with a specific problem (for example, fetal alcohol syndrome, attention deficit disorder)? Telephone: 613-520-5773 CAP: Children's Domestic Abuse Program 2000-2001, Evaluation report. Published in: Psychological Assessment, December 2013 DOI: 10.1037/a0033453: Pubmed ID: 23815118. Kamphaus, R. and P. Frick. “Risk/Need Assessment and Prevention of Antisocial Development in Young People: Basic Issues from a Perspective of Cautionary Optimism.” In Corrado, R. R. et al. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It has been tested several times for internal consistency and reliability, with consistently conclusive results (Kamphaus and Frick 2005). Materials are available in English and French. This is a detection instrument; it is not to be used in issuing diagnoses. “Aggressive and Violent Girls: Prevalence, Profiles and Contributing Factors.” In Corrado, R. R. et al. Telephone: 613-236-0773 In contrast to most tools that use scales rating the frequency or presence of risk factors in various areas, ONSET assesses the relationships and links between the young person's behaviour and the risk factors present in his or her life. Baker, K. et al. The tool has not been validated for ages 12 to 13, but clinical studies have shown that it is still appropriate for use with this age group. ), Multi-Problem Violent Youth: A Foundation for Comparative Research on Needs, Interventions and Outcomes. Social Skills Improvement System Overview: Linking Assessment Results to Practical Interventions. Beyond the popular perception that a young person is difficult, the tool provides practitioners with objective data on the young person's behaviours and attitudes. 2002. Gladman, M. and S. Lancaster. There are numerous advantages to using this tool, including the following: assessing youth with special needs and low reading level; identifying impaired children for referral to more extensive assessment services; identifying potential vulnerability to victimization; and. 2005. BASC-2 can also be hand-scored. Ratings are then added for a total score, which ranges from 0 to 12 (1 point for each “yes” response). ASEBA is considered as a multidimensional and integrated assessment system because it is based on the perspectives of parents, teachers and the children themselves. Frickson, E. 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Based on the structured professional judgment (SPJ) model, the SAVRY helps assist in structuring an assessment so that the important factors will not be missed and, thus, will be emphasized when formulating a final professional judgment about a youth's level of risk (SAVRY Web site). Validity analyses indicate that the YLS/CMI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the risk of future offending behaviour (Hoge and Andrews 2002). “A Review of the Behaviour Assessment System for Children.” School Psychology International 24(3), 276-291. Beuhring, T. 2002. living with persons known to the police), Family and personal relationships (e.g. Ramsey County ACE Program. Fax: 888-397-2774 To date, several empirically-guided sexual offense risk assessment tools have been developed for juveniles. A request for a court report (pre-sentence report and specific sentence report); Community disposals during the assessment, quarterly review and closure stages; Custodial sentences at the assessment, transfer to the community and closure stages. In Grisso, T., G. Vincent and D. Seagrave (Eds. In England, this tool must be used for all young people subject to one of the following: To make a full assessment, the administrator will be required to engage in interviews with the young person and his/her family, obtain information from a range of other sources (the police, courts, health care centres, treatment centres, educational institutions, etc.) BASC-2: Behavior Assessment System for Children: Parent Feedback Report, Teacher Rating Scales. 1995. ONSET can be considered as a process-based tool that works in stages, as follows: There are a number of forms to complete at each stage of the process. A study conducted by Beuhring (2003) examined the characteristics of child delinquents and their families by comparing children at high-risk with those at low-to-moderate-risk. social workers, psychologists, nurses). 2002. Children with volatile temperament who are living in chaotic environment are at much greater risk for becoming chronic serious/violent delinquents than children with mild temperament who are exposed to the same environment, or children with volatile temperament who are receiving the structure and support they need. This tool is intended for girls aged 6 to 12 who are thought to be at risk for future antisocial behaviour. Serin, R. C. 1995. Each inventory contains 20 statements about thoughts, feelings and behaviours associated with emotional and social impairment in youth. Dahlberg, L. et al. The use of risk assessment tools helps to ensure that offenders are being assessed systematically and consistently. Pearson, Assessments for Educational, Clinical and Psychological Use. Augimeri, L. et al. Prosecutors should continue to use the Registrant Risk Assessment Scale for all offenders over 18, regardless of the age when t he offense was committed. The SAVRY was found to have strong predictive validity, a finding that was robust across gender and ethnicity of young offenders. YLS/CMI training is also available (in English and French). ONSET uses a 4-point scale rating the extent to which each particular area is associated with the young person's behaviour, where 0 means not associated at all; 1, occasional association; 2, moderate but definite association; 3, quite strongly associated; and 4, very strongly associated. In fact, only a minority of youth are responsible for most crimes and are on a trajectory toward serious and persistent offending. Logue, L. Concepts of Risk and Protective Factors. New York: The Guilford Press, Chapter 17, 283-294. 2002): In one of the tests undertaken to measure the reliability of ASSET, one group of individuals was assessed by several practitioners. As summarized by Grisso and Vincent (2005), screening tools that fulfill legal obligations are those that include at a minimum (1) one or more scales aimed at current mood and anxiety symptoms, (2) some indication of the short-term likelihood of aggression, (3) some indicator of risk of suicide or self-harm, and (4) an indicator of alcohol and drug abuse. A two-day training session with a half-day refresher is required to ensure adequate use of the tool. 1994. ASSET will also help measure changes in needs and risk of re-offending over time. Saint Paul, Minnesota. EARL-20B is not designed to work with cut-off scores. Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. Do the program and the tool target the same age group? 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