non-transgenic (traditional genetic methods of selection of resistance trait) and transgenic (genetically engineered). The first such example is triazine-resistant canola that was devel-oped through a breeding programme in 1984. 5.Describe how nematode – resistant transgenic plants have been obtained? The application of recombinant technique for horizontal transfer of gene in plant sys­tem has several limitations. The main purpose of creating transgenic plants is to produce crops, high quality and high yield. Comprehensive coverage of time-proven methods for constructing transgenic virus-resistant plants. Plant genome is exceedingly complex, involving a huge amount of DNA, which can accommodate sequences equivalent to 6-7 million genes in an average crop plant. The People's Republic of China was the first country to commercialize transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992. In addition, virus-resistant plants can be achieved through the introduction of viral coat proteins into plants [7, 8]. Virus resistant plants Plants may be engineered with genes for resistance to viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Work to develop a transgenic virus-resistant variety began in the late 1980s. The specific genes fromparasite are introduced into plant using Agrobacterium. Ans.A nematode Meloidogyne incognita infects tobacco plant &reduces its yield. The second event is the submission of the first application in ten years for USDA/EPA approval of a transgenic virus-resistant plant: a plum resistant to plum pox virus (designated the C5 or Honeysweet plum). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are an example of transgenic plant produced through this method. By introducing expressible genes for virus coat proteins, plant scientists can with near certainty generate immunity to viral infection. After creating the first transgenic plant, it has become popular and many plants are created by the transgene. Virus-resistant plants have a viral protein coat gene that is overproduced, preventing the virus from reproducing in the host cell, because the plant shuts off the virus protein coat gene in response to the overproduction. Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. Several genes […] Thereafter, A Multiplex PCR detection and identification of transgenic papaya line 55-1. Development of transgenic plants resistant to abiotic stresses is important in this “Global Warming’s Terrifying Era”. Non-transgenic HRCs, summarized in Table 1, were de-veloped using conventional breeding techniques. By 1992, resistant lines were field-tested; approvals for commercialization were granted in 1997. Papaya ringspot virus raised havoc on papaya farms from the time it first appeared in 1992 in Puna, Hawaii’s major papaya-growing region, until 1998 when seed of Rainbow, a transgenic virus-resistant variety, were released to farmers. The first transgenic plant was created and developed through the insertion of an antibiotic resistance gene into tobacco. This plum contains and expresses a full-length gene for plum pox virus coat protein (Petition 04-26401p). ADVERTISEMENTS: The below mentioned article provides a study note on transgenic plants. The genes are introduced in such a way that bothsense& Antisense RNA are produced. In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life. Was devel-oped through a breeding programme in 1984 were de-veloped using conventional breeding techniques a virus-resistant tobacco in.! 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